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Structural forms教材.doc 5页

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Structural forms 班级:07土本一班 姓名:房志阳 学号:20070701156 Structural forms , such as the beam or the arch , have developed through the ages in relation to the availability of materials and the technology of the time. The arch, for instance, undoubtedly developed as a result of the availability of brick. In the technology of buildings, every structure must work against gravity, which tends to pull everything down to the ground. A balance must therefore be attained between the force of gravity, the shape of the structure, and the strength of the material used. To provide a cover over a sheltered space and permit openings in the walls that surround it, builders have developed four techniques consistent with this balance between gravity, form, and material. These building techniques are post and lintel , arch and vault , truss, and cantilever construction. 结构形式,如梁或拱,通过多年的发展有关的材料供应和当时的技术。拱,举例来说,无疑开发作为砖供应的结果。在建筑技术,每个结构都必须努力克服地球引力,以对抗地心引力吸引都倒在地上。因此必须达到一个平衡的重力之间的形态、结构、材料的强度。提供超过一间庇护空间的覆盖,并允许在它周围的墙壁开口,符合这四个之间的平衡,材料,形成地心引力。这些建筑技术包括,柱,过梁,拱门和拱顶,桁架,和悬臂施工。 Post and lintel. In post and lintel construction, a horizontal beam is placed across the space between two supporting posts. If the support is continuous, it is called a wall; if a series of beams are joined together into a continuous surface , it is called a slab. 柱及过梁。在柱和过梁建设中,一个横梁放在整个空间辅助柱。如果是连续的支持,它被称为墙;若一系列梁加入到一个连续的表面在一起,它被称为板。 Simple rectilinear buildings result from post and lintel construction, which is characteristic of much primitive construction as well as of the classical Greek temples. In this type of construction, the post (or column) carries only a vertical weight , or load, and is therefore under compression, and the lintel (or beam) is bent by the loads acting transversely to its axis. Therefore, the post must have compressive strength, and the beam must have bending strength. Both wood and stone were used in early examples of this type of construction, although the limited bending strength of stone dictated the clo

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